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Koin Emas Kuno Romawi Ditemukan di Bawah Tanah

Koin Emas Kuno Romawi Ditemukan di Bawah Tanah

KOTATOEA.COM — Baru-baru ini ratusan koin emas kuno Romawi telah ditemukan di ruang bawah tanah sebuah Cressoni Theater di Como, Italia.

AFP mewartakan pada Senin (10/9/2018), awalnya gedung itu merupakan tetater yang diresmikan pada 1870, kemudian diubah menjadi bioskop hingga akhirnya tutup pada 1997.

Selanjutnya, bangunan bioskop dihancurkan untuk pembangunan permukiman mewah.

Saat proses itulah, pekerja menemukan koin-koin emas.

Melansir CNN, sekitar 300 koin emas itu dimasukkan ke dalam wadah dan dipendam di tanah.

“Uang dipendam sedemikian rupa sehingga ketika dalam bahaya, mereka bisa pergi dan mengambilnya,” kata ahli koin langka, Maria Grazia Facchinetti.

Koin-koin tersebut memiliki ukiran wajah kaisar Honorius, Valentinian III, Leon I, Antonio, dan Libio Severo.

Dengan begitu, koin kemungkinan berasal dari tahun-tahun sebelum 474 M.

Kekaisaran Romawi Barat

Honorius

Masa kekuasaan 23 Januari 393 – 15 Agustus 423 (30 tahun, 204 hari)

Nama lengkap Flavius Honorius (dari lahir sampai naik takhta);

Flavius Honorius Augustus (sebagai kaisar)

Lahir 9 September 384

Tempat lahir Konstantinopel

Wafat 15 Agustus 423 (umur 38)

Tempat wafat Ravenna, Italia

Pendahulu Theodosius I

Pengganti Valentinianus III

Pasangan dari Maria

Thermantia

Dinasti Theodosianus

Ayah Theodosius I

Ibu Aelia Flaccilla

Honorius (bahasa Latin: Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 Agustus 423) adalah Kaisar Romawi Barat yang berkuasa dari tahun 395 hingga 423. Ia adalah putra bungsu dari pasangan Theodosius I dan istri pertamanya Aelia Flaccilla, dan juga saudara kandung dari kaisar Romawi Timur Arcadius.

Masa kekuasaannya sangat kacau. Salah satu kegagalan terbesarnya adalah ia tak berhasil mengamankan Roma dari penjarahan yang dilancarkan oleh bangsa Visigoth pada tanggal 24 Agustus 410. Sebagai seorang kaisar, ia didukung oleh jenderal utamanya Flavius Stilicho. Kejenderalannya membantu menjaga stabilitas, namun setelah ia dihukum mati, kekaisaran Romawi Barat hampir runtuh.

Dinasti Konstantinianus (306–363)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Constantine Musei Capitolini.jpg Konstantinus “yang Agung”
(Yunani: Κωνσταντίνος Α’ ο Μέγας, Latin: Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus)
19 September 324 –
22 Mei 337
Lahir 27 Februari sek. tahun 280 sebagai putra Augustus Constantius Chlorus. Diumumkan Augustus kekaisaran barat setelah kematian ayahnya pada tanggal 25 Juli 306 dan kemudian menyatukan seluruh kekaisaran
ConstantiusII.jpg Konstantius [II]
(Κωνστάντιος [Β’], Flavius Iulius Constantius)
22 Mei 337 –
5 Oktober 361
Lahir pada tanggal 7 Agustus 317, putra kedua Konstantinus I. Pewaris ketiga Timur Kekaisaran Romawi setelah kematian ayahnya, Kaisar Romawi tunggal dari tahun 351. Meninggal karena sakit pada saat kampanye
Emperor Constans Louvre Ma1021.jpg Konstans I
(Κώνστας Α’, Flavius Iulius Constans)
22 Mei 337 –
350
Lahir sek. tahun 323, putra ketiga Konstantinus I. Pewaris ketiga pusat Kekaisaran Romawi setelah kematian ayahnya, yang diperoleh oleh Balkan pada tahun 338. Tewas terbunuh selama pemberontakan Magnentius
JulianusII-antioch(360-363)-CNG.jpg Julian “yang Murtad”
(Ιουλιανός “ο Παραβάτης”, Flavius Claudius Iulianus)
5 Oktober 361 –
28 Juni 363
Lahir Mei 332, cucu laki-laki Constantius Chlorus dan keponakan Konstantius II. Diumumkan oleh pasukannya di Gaul, menjadi Kaisar yang sah setelah kematian Constantius. Tewas terbunuh di dalam kampanye melawan Kekaisaran Sasaniyah

Non dinasti (363–364)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Jovian1.jpg Jovian
(Ιοβιανός, Flavius Claudius Iovianus)
28 Juni 363 –
17 Februari 364
Lahir sek. tahun 332. Kapten penjaga di bawah kekuasaan Julian, yang dipilih oleh pasukan setelah kematian Julian. Meninggal pada perjalanan kembali ke Konstantinopel

Dinasti Valentinianus (364–379)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
ValentinianI.jpg Valentinianus I
(Ουαλεντιανός, Flavius Valentinianus)
26 Februari 364 –
17 November 375
Lahir tahun 321. Seorang pejabat di bawah kekuasaan Julian dan Jovian, ia terpilih oleh pasukan setelah kematian Jovian. Ia segera menunjuk saudaranya Valens sebagai Kaisar Timur. Meninggal karena pendarahan otak
Valens1.jpg Valens
(Ουάλης, Flavius Iulius Valens)
28 Maret 364 –
9 Agustus 378
Lahir tahun 328. Seorang prajurit pasukan Romawi, ia ditunjuk oleh Kaisar Timur oleh saudaranya Valentinianus I. Tewas terbunuh di medan Pertempuran Adrianopel
align=center align=center|Gratian
(Γρατιανός, Flavius Gratianus)
9 Agustus 378 –
19 Januari 379
Lahir pada tanggal 18 April/23 Mei 359, putra Valentinianus I. Kaisar Barat, ia menjadi pewaris Timur setelah kematian Valens dan menunjuk Theodosius I sebagai Kaisar Timur. Tewas terbunuh pada tanggal 25 Agustus 383 pada masa pemberontakan Magnus Maximus

Dinasti Theodosianus (379–457)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Theod1.jpg Theodosius I “yang Agung”
(Θεοδόσιος Α’ ο Μέγας, Flavius Theodosius)
19 Januari 379 –
17 Januari 395
Lahir pada tanggal 11 Januari 347. Seorang aristokrat dan pemimpin militer, saudara ipar Gratian, yang menunjuknya sebagai Kaisar Timur. Dari tahun 392 sampai kematiannya ia menjadi Kaisar Romawi tunggal.
Arcadius Istanbul Museum.PNG Arcadius
(Αρκάδιος, Flavius Arcadius)
17 Januari 395 –
1 Mei 408
Lahir pada tahun 377/378, putra sulung Theodosius I, yang naik tahta setelah kematian ayahnya.
Theodosius II Louvre Ma1036.jpg Theodosius II
(Θεοδόσιος Β’, Flavius Theodosius)
1 Mei 408 –
28 Juli 450
Lahir pada tanggal 10 April 401, putra tunggal Arcadius. Menjadi pewaris setlah kematian ayahnya. Sebagai bocah, prefek praetorian Anthemius menjadi wali pada tahun 408–414. Ia tewas di dalam sebuah kecelakaan berkendara.
Marcian.jpg Marcian
(Μαρκιανός, Flavius Valerius Marcianus)
450 – Januari 457 Lahir pada tahun 396. Seorang prajurit dan politisi, ia menjadi kaisar setelah menikahi AugustaPulcheria, saudari Theodosius II, setelah kematian pendahulunya. Meninggal karena penyakit gangrene.

Dinasti Leonid (457–518)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Leo I Louvre Ma1012.jpg Leo I “Trakia”
(Λέων Α’ ο Θράξ, Flavius Valerius Leo)
7 Februari 457 –
18 Januari 474
Lahir di Dacia pada tahun 401. Seorang prajurit biasa, ia ditunjuk oleh Aspar, kepala pemimpin pasukan. Meninggal karena penyakit disentri.
Leo (474)-coin.jpg Leo II
(Λέων Β’, Flavius Leo)
18 Januari –
17 November 474
Lahir pada tahun 467, cucu laki-laki Leo I. Menjadi pewaris setelah kematian Leo I. Tewas secara misterius, kemungkinan diracuni.
Zeno.png Zeno
(Ζήνων, Flavius Zeno)
17 November 474 –
9 April 491
Lahir sek. tahun 425 di ZenonopolisIsauria, mulanya dinamai Tarasicodissa. Menantu Leo I, ia dilewatkan sebagai pewaris karena asal usulnya barbar. Ditunjuk sebagai rekan-kaisar oleh putranya pada tanggal 9 Februari 474, ia naik tahta setelah kematian Leo II. Digulingkan oleh Basiliscus, saudara ipar Leo, ia melarikan diri ke kampung halamannya dan mendapatkan tahtanya kembali pada bulan Agustus 476.
Basiliscus.jpg Basiliscus
(Βασιλίσκος, Flavius Basiliscus)
9 Januari 475 –
Agustus 476
Seorang Jenderal dan saudara ipar Leo I, ia merebut kekuasaan dari Zeno namun dapat digulingkan kembali olehnya. Meninggal pada tahun 476/477
Anastasius I (emperor).jpg Anastasius I
(Αναστάσιος Α’, Flavius Anastasius)
11 April 491 –
9 Juli 518
Lahir sek. tahun 430 di DyrrhachiumEpirus nova. Seorang pejabat istana (silentiarius) dan menantu Leo I, ia ditunjuk sebagai Kaisar oleh Ibu Suri Ariadne

Dinasti Yustinianus (518-602)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
JustinI.jpg Yustinus I
(Ιουστίνος Α’, Flavius Iustinus)
Juli 518 –
1 Agustus 527
Lahir sek. tahun 450 di Bederiana (Justiniana Prima), Dardania. Seorang pejabat dan komandan pengawal Excubitores di bawah kekuasaan Anastasius I, ia ditunjuk oleh pasukan dan rakyat setelah kematian Anastasius I.
Meister von San Vitale in Ravenna.jpg Yustinianus I “yang Agung”
(Ιουστινιανός Α’ ο Μέγας, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus)
1 Agustus 527 –
13/14 November 565
Lahir pada tahun 482/483 di Tauresium (Taor), Makedonia. Keponakan Yustinus I, kemungkinan naik sebagai rekan-kaisar pada tanggal 1 April 527. Menggantikan Yustinus I setelah kematiannya.
Justin II.jpg Yustinus II
(Ιουστίνος Β’, Flavius Iustinus Iunior)
14 November 565 –
5 Oktober 578
Lahir sek. tahun 520. Keponakan Yustinianus I, ia merebut tahta setelah kematian Yustinianus I dengan bantuan pasukan dan Senat. Menjadi tidak waras, karenanya pada tahun 573–574 di bawah perwalian istrinya Sophia, dan pada tahun 574–578 di bawah perwalian Tiberius Konstantinus.
Tiberius II.jpg Tiberius II Konstantinus
(Τιβέριος Β’, Flavius Tiberius Constantinus)
5 Oktober 578 –
14 Agustus 582
Lahir pada sek. tahun 520, komandan Excubitores, sahabat dan putra angkat Yustinus. Dinamakan Caesar dan wali pada tahun 574. Pewaris setelah kematian Yustinus II.
Emperor Maurice.jpg Maurice
(Μαυρίκιος, Flavius Mauricius Tiberius)
14 Agustus 582 –
22 November 602
Lahir pada tahun 539 di ArabissusCappadocia. Menjadi seorang pejabat dan kemudian jenderal. Menikahi putri Tiberius II dan menggantikannya setelah kematiannya. Menunjuk putranya Theodosius sebagai rekan-kaisar pada tahun 600. Digulingkan oleh Phocas dan dieksekusi pada tanggal 27 November 602 di Chalcedon.

Non dinasti (602–610)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Phocas (emperor).jpg Phokas
(Φωκάς, Flavius Phocas)
23 November 602 –
4 Oktober 610
Seorang bawahan di dalam pasukan Balkan, ia memimpin suatu pemberontakan yang menggulingkan Maurice. Menjadi tidak populer dan sewenang-wenang, ia digulingkan dan dieksekusi oleh Heraklius.

Dinasti Heraklius (610-711)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine solidus.jpg Heraklius
(Ηράκλειος, Flavius Heraclius)
5 Oktober 610 –
11 Februari 641
Lahir pada sek. tahun 575 sebagai putra sulung Eksarka AfrikaHeraklius Tua. Mulai memberontak melawan Phocas pada tahun 609 dan menggulingkannya pada bulan Oktober 610. Membawa Perang Bizantium-Sassania 602–628 kedalam penyelesaian yang berhasil namun tidak dapat menghentikan Penaklukan Muslim di Syria.
Heraclius and sons.jpg Konstantinus III
resminya Heraklius Konstantinus Baru
(Ηράκλειος νέος Κωνσταντίνος,Heraclius Novus Constantinus)
11 Februari –
24/26 Mei 641
Lahir pada tanggal 3 Mei 612 sebagai putra sulung Heraclius dan istri pertamanya Fabia Eudokia. Ditunjuk sebagai rekan-kaisar pada tahun 613, ia naik tahta dengan adik laki-lakinya Heraklonas setelah kematian Heraklius. Meninggal karena batuk kering, diduga diracuni oleh Ibu Suri Martina.
Heraclius and sons.jpg Heraklonas
(Ηρακλωνάς, Heraclianus)
resminya Konstantinus Heraklius
(Κωνσταντίνος Ηράκλειος, Constantinus Heraclius)
11 Februari 641 –
September 641
Lahir pada tahun 626 dan istri kedua Heraklius Martina, ditunjuk sebagai rekan-kaisar pada tahun 638. Naik tahta dengan Konstantinus III setelah kematian Heraklius. Kaisar tunggal setelah kematian Konstantinus III, di bawah perwalian Martina, namun dipaksa untuk menunjuk Konstans IIrekan-kaisar oleh pasukan, dan digulingkan oleh Senat pada bulan September 641.
Hexagram-Constans II and Constantine IV-sb0995.jpg Kōnstas II
(Κώνστας Β’, Constantus II)
resminya Konstantinus “yang Berjenggot” atau Kōnstantinos Pogonatos,
(Κωνσταντίνος ο Πωγωνάτος)
September 641 –
15 September 668
Lahir pada tanggal 7 November 630, putra Konstantinus III. Naik tahta menjadi rekan-kaisar pada musim panas tahun 641 setelah kematian ayahnya karena tekanan pasukan, ia menjadi kaisar tunggal setelah pengunduran diri pamannya secara paksa Heraklonas. Dibaptis Heraklius, ia memerintah sebagai Konstantinus. “Kōnstas” adalah nama kecilnya. Memindahkan kekuasaannya ke Siracusa, di mana ia dibunuh, kemungkinan atas perintah Mezezius.
Privil classe.jpg Kōnstantinos IV “yang Berjenggot”
(Κωνσταντίνος Δ’ ο Πωγωνάτος)
15 September 668 –
September 685
Lahir pada tahun 652, ia menjadi pewaris setelah pembunuhan ayahnya Kōnstas II. Namanya keliru disebutkan sebagai “Kōnstantinos yang Berjenggot” seperti ayahnya oleh para sejarawan. Ia mengusir Pengepungan Arab Pertama Konstantinopel, dan meninggal karena disentri.
Solidus-Justinian II-Christ b-sb1413.jpg Yustinianus II
(Ιουστινιανός Β’ ο Ρινότμητος)
September 685 –
695
Lahir pada tahun 669, ia ditunjuk sebagai rekan-kaisar pada tahun 681 dan menjadi kaisar tunggal setelah kematian Konstantinus IV. Digulingkan oleh pemberontakan militer pada tahun 695, dibuat menjadi cacat (yang menjadi nama julukannya) dan diasingkan ke Cherson, di mana ia mendapatkan kembali tahtanya pada tahun 705.
Solidus-Leontinus-sb1330.jpg Leontios
(Λεόντιος)
695–698 Seorang Jenderal dari Isauria, ia menggulingkan Yustinianus II dan digulingkan di dalam sebuah pemberontakan pada tahun 698. Ia dieksekusi pada bulan Februari 706.
Solidus-Tiberius III-sb1360.4.jpg Tiberius III (II) Apsimar
(Τιβέριος Γ’ Αψίμαρος)
698–705 Seorang Laksamana asal Jermanik, mulanya dinamakan Apsimar. Ia memberontak melawan Leontios setelah ekspedisi yang gagal. Memerintah atas nama Tiberius sampai digulingkan oleh Yustinianus II pada tahun 705. Dieksekusi pada bulan Februari 706.
Solidus-Justinian II-Christ b-sb1413.jpg Yustinianus II
(Ιουστινιανός Β’ ο Ρινότμητος)
Agustus 705 –
Desember 711
Kembali bertahta dengan dukungan Bulgar. Menunjuk putranya Tiberius sebagai rekan-kaisar pada tahun 706. Digulingkan dan tewas terbunuh oleh pemberontakan militer.

Non dinasti (711–717)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Solidus-Philippicus-sb1447.3.jpg Philippikos Bardanes
(Φιλιππικός Βαρδάνης)
Desember 711 –
3 Juni 713
Seorang Jenderal asal Armenia, ia menggulingkan Yustinianus II dan sebaliknya digulingkan oleh sebuah pemberontakan pasukan Opsikion.
Solidus-Anastasius II-sb1463.jpg Anastasios II
(Αναστάσιος Β’)
Juni 713 –
November 715
Aslinya bernama Artemios. Seorang birokrat dan sekretaris di bawah kekuasaan Philippikos, ia ditunjuk oleh para prajurit yang menggulingkan Philippikos. Digulingkan oleh sebuah pemberontakan militer lainnya, ia memimpin sebuah rencana yang gagal untuk mendapatkan kembali tahtanya pada tahun 718 dan tewas terbunuh.
Theodosius iii coin.jpg Theodosios III
(Θεοδόσιος Γ’)
Mei 715 –
25 Maret 717
Seorang petugas fiskal, ia diumumkan kaisar oleh para pemberontak pasukan Opsikion. Memasuki Konstantinopel pada bulan November 715. Mengundurkan diri setelah pemberontakan Leo Isauria dan menjadi seorang biarawan.

Dinasti Isaurianus (717-802)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Solidus-Leo III and Constantine V-sb1504.jpg Leōn III “Isaurianus”
(Λέων Γ΄ ο Ίσαυρος)
25 Maret 717 –
18 Juni 741
Lahir sek. tahun 685 di JermanikeiaCommagene, ia menjadi seorang Jenderal. Terkenal di dalam pemberontakan dan mengamankan tahta pada musim semi tahun 717. Mengusir Pengepungan Arab Kedua Konstantinopel dan memulai Ikonoklasme Bizantium.
Solidus-Leo III and Constantine V-sb1504.jpg Kōnstantinos V “Kotoran”
(Κωνσταντίνος Ε΄ ο Κοπρώνυμος)
18 Juni 741 –
14 September 775
Lahir pada bulan Juli 718, putra tunggal Leōn III. Rekan-kaisar sejak tahun 720, ia menjadi pewaris setelah kematian ayahnya. Setelah meredakan penyerapan Artabasdos, ia melanjutkan kebijakan ikonoklastik ayahnya (yang membuatnya dinamakan “kotoran” oleh para penulis kronik yang membencinya) dan memenangkan beberapa perang melawan bangsa Arab dan Bulgar.
Artabasdos
(Αρτάβασδος)
Juni 741/742 –
2 November 743
Seorang Jenderal dan menantu Leōn III, Pangeran Opsikion. Memimpin sebuah pemberontakan yang mengamankan Konstantinopel, namun dikalahkan dan digulingkan oleh Kōnstantinos V, yang membutakan dan mencukur ubun-ubunnya.
Leo iv constantine vi coin.jpg Leōn IV “Bangsa Khazar”
(Λέων Δ΄ ο Χάζαρος)
14 September 775 –
8 September 780
Lahir pada tanggal 25 Januari 750 sebagai putra sulung Kōnstantinos V. Rekan-kaisar sejak tahun 751, ia menjadi pewaris setelah kematian ayahnya.
Leo iv constantine vi coin.jpg Kōnstantinos VI
(Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ΄)
8 September 780 –
Agustus 797
Lahir pada tahun 771, putra tunggal Leōn IV. Rekan-kaisar pada tahun 776, kaisar tunggal setelah kematian Leōn pada tahun 780, sampai tahun 790 di bawah perwalian ibunya, Irene dari Athena. Ia digulingkan atas perintah Irene, dibutakan dan dipenjara, kemungkinan meninggal karena sekarat dari luka-lukanya tak lama kemudian.
Irina ( Pala d'Oro).jpg Irene dari Athena
(Ειρήνη η Αθηναία)
Agustus 797 –
31 Oktober 802
Lahir sek. tahun 752 di Athena, ia menikah dengan Leōn IV. Wali putranya Kōnstantinos VI pada tahun 780–790, ia menggulingkannya pada tahun 797 dan memerintah sebagai Maharani. Digulingkan di dalam kudeta istana pada tahun 802, ia dibunag kepengasingan dan meninggal pada tanggal 9 Agustus 803.

Dinasti Nikephoros (802–813)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Solidus-Nicephorus I and Staraucius-sb1604.jpg Nikēphoros I “Logothete”
(Νικηφόρος Α΄ ο Λογοθέτης)
31 Oktober 802 –
26 Juli 811
Genikos Logothetēs (menteri keuangan) di bawah kekuasaan Irene, memimpin mulanya kampanye yang berhasil melawan Bulgar namun tewas terbunuh di medan Pertempuran Pliska.
Solidus-Nicephorus I and Staraucius-sb1604.jpg Staurakios
(Σταυράκιος)
2 Oktober 811 –
11 Januari 812
Putra tunggal Nikēphoros I, ditunjuk sebagai rekan-kaisar pada bulan Desember 803. Naik tahta setelah kematian ayahnya; akan tetapi, ia terluka berat di Pliska dan lumpuh. Ia didesak untuk mengundurkan diri ke biara di mana ia meninggal tak lama kemudian.
Michael I (Byzantine Emperor).jpg Mikhaēl I Rangabes
(Μιχαήλ Α΄ Ραγκαβέ)
11 Januari 812 –
11 Juli 813
Menantu Nikēphoros I, ia menggantikan Staurakios setelah pengunduran dirinya. Mengundurkan diri setelah pemberontakan di bawah Leōn V Armenia dan pergi ke biara, di mana ia meninggal pada tanggal 11 Januari 844.

Non dinasti (813–820)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Leo V solidus.jpg Leōn V “Armenia”
(Λέων Ε’ ο Αρμένιος)
11 Juli 813 –
25 Desember 820
Seorang Jenderal asal Armenia, lahir sek. tahun 775. Ia memberontak melawan Mikhaēl I Rangabes dan menjadi kaisar. Menunjuk putranya Symbatios rekan-kaisar di bawah nama Konstantinus pada Hari Natal tahun 813. Menghidupkan kembali Ikonoklasme Bizantium. Tewas terbunuh oleh sebuah konspirasi yang dipimpin oleh Mikhaēl II.

Dinasti Frigia atau Amorian (820-867)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Michael II and Theophilos solidus.jpg Mikhaēl II “yang Gagap” atau “Amorian”
(Μιχαήλ Β΄ ο Τραυλός/Ψελλός, ο εξ Αμορίου)
25 Desember 820 –
2 Oktober 829
Lahir pada tahun 770 di Amorium, ia menjadi seorang pejabat militer. Sahabat Leōn V, ia naik pangkat namun memimpin sebuah konspirasi yang membuatnya terbunuh. Selamat dari pemberontakan Thomas Slavia, kehilangan Crete dari bangsa Arab dan menghadapi permulaan Penaklukan Muslim di Sisilia, memperkuat ikonoklasme.
Emperor Theophilos Chronicle of John Skylitzes.jpg Theophilos
(Θεόφιλος)
2 Oktober 829 –
20 Januari 842
Lahir pada tahun 813, sebagai putra tunggal Mikhaēl II. Rekan-kaisar sejak tahun 821, ia mewarisi tahta ayahnya setelah kematiannya.
Michael iii.jpg Mikhaēl III “yang Pemabuk”
(Μιχαήλ Γ΄ ο Μέθυσος)
20 Januari 842 –
23 September 867
Lahir pada tanggal 19 Januari 840, ia naik tahta setelah kematian Theophilos. Dibawah perwalian ibunya Theodora sampai tahun 856, dan pamannya Bardas pada tahun 862–866. Mengakhiri ikonoklasme. Terbunuh oleh Basil Makedonia. Seorang pemimpin yang disegani, ia dijuluki “Pemabuk” oleh penulis kronik kemudian yang pro-Basil .

Dinasti Makedonia (867–1056)

Gambar Nama Status Lahir Kaisar dari Kaisar sampai Wafat
Basil&leo.jpg Basil I Makedonia
Βασίλειος Α΄ ο Μακεδών
Seorang pejabat istana asal Armenia, lahir di Thema Makedonia sek. 811 867 2 Agustus 886
Detail of the Imperial Gate mosaic in Hagia Sophia showing Leo VI the Wise.jpg Leōn VI yang Bijak
Λέων ΣΤ΄ ο Σοφός
sepertinya adalah baik putra Basil I atau Mikhaēl III 19 September 866 886 11 Mei 912
Alexanderemp.jpg Alexandros (III)
Αλέξανδρος Γ΄
putra Basil I 870 912 913
Porphyrogenetus.jpg Kōnstantinos VII Porphyrogennētos
Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ ο Πορφυρογέννητος
putra Leōn VI, sampai tahun 945 ia bertahta di bawah perwalian atau rekan-kaisar 9 September 905 15 Mei 908 9 November 959
Romanus I with Christopher, solidus.jpg Rōmanos I Lakapēnos
Ρωμανός Α΄ Λεκαπηνός
Laksamana dan ayah mertua Kōnstantinos VII, menjadi kaisar senior pada tahun 920 sampai pengunduran dirinya tahun 944 sek. 870 17 Desember 920 16 Desember 944 15 Juni 948
Constantine VII and Romanos II solidus.jpg Rōmanos II Porphyrogennētos
Ρωμανός Β΄ ο Πορφυρογέννητος
putra Kōnstantinos VII 15 Maret 938 November 959 15 Maret 963
Nikiphoros Phokas.jpg Nikēphoros II Phōkas
Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκάς
menikahi Theophanō, janda Rōmanos II, wali Basil II sek. 912 16 Agustus 963 969
John I Tzimiskes 8.jpg Iōannēs I Tzimiskēs
Iωάννης Α΄ Κουρκούας ο Τσιμισκής
saudara ipar Romanus II sek. 925 11 Desember 969 10 Januari 976
Basilios II.jpg Basil II Pembantai Bulgar
Βασίλειος Β΄ ο Βουλγαροκτόνος
putra Rōmanos II 958 10 Januari 976 15 Desember 1025
Histamenon nomisma-Constantine VIII-sb1776.jpg Kōnstantinos VIII
Κωνσταντίνος Η΄ ο Πορφυρογέννητος
putra Rōmanos II 960 15 Desember 1025 15 November 1028
EmpZoe.jpg Zōē
Ζωή η Πορφυρογέννητη
putri Kōnstantinos VIII sek. 978 15 November 1028 Juni 1050
Miliaresion-Romanus III-sb1822.jpg Rōmanos III Argyros
Ρωμανός Γ΄ Αργυρός
suami pertama Zōē 968 15 November 1028 11 April 1034
Michael IV histamenon.jpg Mikhaēl ho Paphlagōn
Μιχαήλ Δ΄ ο Παφλαγών
Suami kedua Zōē 1010 11 April 1034 10 Desember 1041
Histamenon nomisma-Micael V-sb1776.jpg Mikhaēl V Kalaphatēs
Μιχαήλ Ε΄ ο Καλαφάτης
keponakan Mikhaēl IV 1015 10 Desember 1041 20 April 1042 24 Agustus 1042
Tetarteron-Theodora-sb1838.jpg Theodōra
Θεοδώρα
putri Kōnstantinos VIII 984 20 April 1042 1042 setelah 31 Agustus 1056
Istanbul.Hagia Sophia072.Monomuhos.jpg Kōnstantinos IX Monomakhos
Κωνσταντίνος Θ΄ Μονομάχος
Suami ketiga Zōē sek. 1000 11 Juni 1042 11 Januari 1055
Tetarteron-Theodora-sb1838.jpg Theodōra
Θεοδώρα
putri Kōnstantinos VIII 984 11 Januari 1055 setelah 31 Agustus 1056

Non dinasti (1056–1057)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Michael VI tetarteron.jpg Mikhaēl VI Bringas, “Stratiotikos” atau “yang Tua”
(Μιχαήλ ΣΤ΄ Βρίγγας, ο Στρατιωτικός, ο Γέρων)
September 1056 –
31 Agustus 1057
Seorang Birokrat istana dan logothete militer (yang menjadi julukan pertamanya). Digulingkan oleh pemberontakan militer di bawah pimpinan Isaakios I Komnenos, ia mengundurkan diri ke sebuah biara di mana ia meninggal pada tahun 1059.

Dinasti Komnenid (1057–1059)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Histamenon nomisma-Isaac I-sb1776.jpg Isaakios I Komnenos
(Ισαάκιος Α΄ Κομνηνός)
5 Juni 1057 –
22 November 1059
Lahir pada sek. tahun 1005, seorang jenderal yang sukses; ia menjadi terkenal pada saat pemberontakan pasukan timur dan diumumkan sebagai Kaisar; ia diakui setelah pengunduran diri Mikhaēl VI pada tanggal 31 Agustus 1057. Ia mengundurkan diri pada tahun 1059 dan wafat pada sek. tahun 1061.

Dinasti Doukid (1059–1081)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Costantino X - histamenon - Sear 1847v.jpg Kōnstantinos X Doukas
(Κωνσταντίνος Ι΄ Δούκας)
24 November 1059 –
22 Mei 1067
Lahir pada tahun 1006, ia menjadi seorang jenderal dan sekutu dekat Isaakios I Komnēnos, dan menjadi pewarisnya sebagai kaisar setelah pengunduran dirinya. Menunjuk putra-putranya Mikhaēl VII DoukasAndronikos dan Konstantios sebagai rekan-kaisar
NomismaMikaelVIIDoukas.jpg Mikhaēl VII Doukas
(Μιχαήλ Ζ΄ Δούκας)
22 Mei 1067 –
24 Maret 1078
Lahir pada tahun 1050 sebagai putra sulung Kōnstantinos X. Rekan-kaisar sejak tahun 1059, ia menjadi pewaris setelah kematian ayahnya. Karena ia masih di bawah umur ibunya, Eudokia Makrembolitissaberperan sebagai walinya, pada tahun 1067–1068, dan terdegradasi ke kaisar muda di bawah suami keduanya Rōmanos IV Diogenēs pada tahun 1068–1071. Kaisar senior pada tahun 1071–1078, ia menunjuk putranya Kōnstantinos rekan-kaisar bersama dengan saudara-saudaranya. Ia mengundurkan diri sebelum pemberontakan Nikephoros Botaneiates, pergi ke biara dan meninggal pada sek. tahun 1090.
Romanos et Eudoxie.JPG Rōmanos IV Diogenes
(Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης)
1 Januari 1068 –
24 Oktober 1071
Lahir pada tahun 1032, seorang jenderal yang sukses ia menikahi ibu suri Eudokia Makrembolitissa dan menjadi kaisar senior sebagai wali putra-putranya oleh Kōnstantinos X. Digulingkan oleh para pendukung Doukas setelah Pertempuran Manzikert, dibutakan pada bulan Juni 1072 dan dibuang kepengasingan. Ia meninggal tak lama kemudian.
Meister der Predigtsammlung des Heiligen Johannes Chrysostomus 001.jpg Nikephoros III Botaneiates
(Νικηφόρος Γ΄ Βοτανειάτης)
31 Maret 1078 –
4 April 1081
Lahir pada tahun 1001, ia merupakan stratagos atau pemimpin pasukan Tema Anatolikon. Ia memberontak melawan Mikhaēl VII dan disambut ke dalam ibukota. Ia memadamkan beberapa pemberontakan, namun digulingkan oleh klan Komnenos. Ia mengundurkan diri ke biara di mana ia meninggal pada tanggal 10 Desember pada tahun yang sama (1081).

Dinasti Komnenid (1081–1185)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Alexios I Komnenos.jpg Alexius I Komnenus
(Αλέξιος Α’ Κομνηνός)
4 April 1081 –
15 Agustus 1118
Lahir pada tahun 1048, keponakan Isaakios I Komnenos. Seorang Jenderal yang berbeda, ia menggulingkan Nikephoros III. Pemerintahannya didominasikan oleh peperangan melawan Normandiadan Turki Seljuk, dan juga kedatangan Perang Salib Pertama dan pendirian Negara-negara Tentara Salib. Ia dipertahankan Kōnstantinos Doukas sebagai rekan-kaisar sampai tahun 1087 dan menunjuk putra sulungnya Iōannēs rekan-kaisar pada tahun 1092.
JohnIIcomnenus.jpg Iōannēs II Komnēnos
(Ιωάννης Β’ Κομνηνός)
15 Agustus 1118 –
8 April 1143
Lahir pada tanggal 13 September 1087 sebagai putra sulung Alexios I. Rekan-kaisar sejak tahun 1092, ia menjadi pewaris setelah kematian ayahnya. Pemerintahannya difokuskan pada peperangan dengan Turki. Seorang pemimpin yang populer dan hemat, ia dikenal sebagai “Iōannēs yang Baik”. Menunjuk putra sulungnya Alexios rekan-kaisar pada tahun 1122, namuna ia meninggal sebelumnya.
Manuel I Comnenus.jpg Manouēl I Komnēnos
(Μανουήλ Α’ Κομνηνός)
1143 –
24 September 1180
Lahir pada tanggal 28 November 1118 sebagai putra Iōannēs II yang ketiga dan bungsu, ia ditunjuk sebagai kaisar setelah kakandanya Isaakios oleh ayahnya menjelang ajalnya. Seorang pemimpin yang energetik, ia melancarkan kampanye melawan Turki, merendahkan Hongaria, mencapai supremasi atas negara-negara Perang Salib dan gagal memulihkan Italia. Pemborosan dan kampanyenya yang konstan menguras sumber daya kekaisaran.
Alexios II - komnenos.jpg Alexios II Komnēnos
(Αλέξιος B’ Κομνηνός)
24 September 1180 –
Oktober 1183
Lahir pada tanggal 14 September 1169 sebagai putra tunggal Manouēl I. Pada 1180–1182 di bawah perwalian ibunya, Maria dari Antiokhia. Ia digulingkan oleh Andronikos I Komnēnos, yang menjadi rekan-kaisar dan akhirnya menggulingkan dan membunuh Alexios II.
ByzantineBillonTrachy.jpg Andronikos I Komnēnos
(Ανδρόνικος Α’ Κομνηνός)
1183 –
11 September 1185
Lahir sek. tahun 1118, keponakan Iōannēs II oleh saudaranya Isaakios. Seorang Jenderal, ia dipenjarakan karena merencanakan pemberontakan melawan Iōannēs II, namun melarikan diri dan menghabiskan 15 tahun dipengasingan di beberapa istana di Eropa timur dan Timur Tengah. Ia menyita perwalian dari Maria dari Antiokhia pada tahun 1182 dan akhirnya tahta dari keponakannya Alexios II. Seorang pemimpin yang tidak populer, ia digulingkan dan digantung di dalam suatu pemberontakan yang terkenal.

Dinasti Angelid (1185–1204)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
IsaacIIAnge.jpg Isaakios II Angelos
(Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος)
1185–1195 Lahir pada bulan September 1156, Isaakios naik tahta pada puncak pemberontakan populer melawan Andronikos I. Pemerintahannya ditandai dengan pemberontakan dan peperangan di Balkan, terutama melawan bangkitnya kembali Bulgaria. Ia digulingkan, dibutakan dan dipenjara oleh kakandanya, Alexios III.
Alexios III -Angelos.jpg Alexios III Angelos
(Αλέξιος Γ’ Άγγελος)
1195 –
17/18 Juli 1203
Lahir pada tahun 1153, Alexios adalah kakanda Isaakios II. Pemerintahannya ditandai dengan kesalahan pemerintahan dan meningkatnya otonomi tokoh terkemuka daerah. Ia digulingkan oleh Perang Salib Keempat dan melarikan diri ke Konstantinopel, berkeliaran di Yunani dan Asia Kecil, mencari dukungan untuk mendapatkan tahtanya kembali. Ia meninggal di tahanan Nicea pada tahun 1211.
IsaacIIAnge.jpg Isaakios II Angelos
(Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος)
18 Juli 1203 –
27/28 Januari 1204
Dipulihkan tahtanya oleh tentara perang salib, pemerintahan sesungguhnya jatuh ketangan putranya Alexios IV. Karena kegagalan mereka memenuhi permintaan-permintaan para tentara perang salib, ia digulingkan oleh Alexios V Doukas pada bulan Januari 1204 dan meninggal pada tanggal 28 Januari 1204, kemungkinan diracuni.
Alexius4.jpg Alexios IV Angelos
(Αλέξιος Δ’ Άγγελος)
1 Agustus 1203 –
27/28 Januari 1204
Lahir pada tahun 1182, putra Isaakios II. Ia mendapatkan Perang Salib Keempat untuk mengembalikan ayahnya ke atas tahta, dan memerintah bersama ayahnya yang kembali bertahta. Karena kegagalan mereka untuk memeuni permintaan para tentara perang salib, ia digulingkan oleh Alexios V Doukas pada bulan Januari 1204, dan dicekik mati pada tanggal 8 Februari.
Alexius V.JPG Alexios V DoukasMourtzouphlos
(Αλέξιος Ε’ Δούκας ο Μούρτζουφλος)
5 Februari 1204 –
13 April 1204
Lahir pada tahun 1140, menantu Alexios III dan seorang aristokrat yang menonjol, ia menggulingkan Isaakios II dan Alexios IV dalam sebuah kudeta istana. Ia mencoba untuk mengusir para tentara perang salib, namun mereka menangkap Konstantinopel memaksa Mourtzouphlos untuk melarikan diri. Ia bergabung dengan Alexios III yang diasingkan, namun kemudian dibutakan oleh pemimpin selanjutnya. Ditangkap oleh para tentara Perang Salib, dieksekusi pada bulan Desember 1205.

Dinasti Laskarid (Kekaisaran Nicea, 1204–1261)

Nama Pemerintahan Komentar
Theodore I Laskaris miniature.jpg Theodōros I Laskaris
(Θεόδωρος Α΄ Λάσκαρις)
1205–
Desember 1221/1222
Lahir sek. tahun 1174, ia menjadi pamor sebagai menantu Alexios III. Saudaranya Kōnstantinos Laskaristerpilih sebagai kaisar oleh rakyat Konstantinopel pada hari di mana kota tersebut jatuh ketangan para tentara Perang Salib; ia kemudian melarikan diri ke Nicea, di mana Theodōros mengatur pertahanan Yunani terhadap Latin. Diumumkan kaisar setelah kematian Kōnstantinos pada tahun 1205, Theodōros dimahkotai hanya pada tahun 1208. Ia berhasil menghentikan kemajuan Latin di Asia dan menangkis serangan-serangan Seljuk, mendirikan Kekaisaran Nicea sebagai negara-negara pewaris Yunani yang terkuat.
John III Doukas Vatatzes.jpg Iōannēs III Doukas Vatatzēs
(Ιωάννης Γ’ Δούκας Βατάτζης)
15 Desember 1221/1222–
3 November 1254
Lahir sek. tahun 1192, ia menjadi menantu dan pewaris Theodōros I pada tahun 1212. Seorang pemimpin dan prajurit yang cakap, ia mengembangkan negaranya di Bithynia, Trakia dan Makedonia atas biaya Kekaisaran Latin, Bulgaria dan saingan negara Yunani Epirus.
Theodore II Laskaris miniature.jpg Theodōros II Doukas Laskaris
(Θεόδωρος Β’ Λάσκαρις)
3 November 1254–
18 Agustus 1258
Lahir pada tahun 1221/1222 sebagai putra tunggal Iōannēs III, ia naik tahta setelah kematian ayahnya. Pemerintahannya ditandai dengan kebenciannya terhadap istana-istana utama aristokrat, dan dengan kemenangannya melawan Bulgaria dan ekspansi berikut kedalamnya dan Albania.
John IV Laskaris miniature.jpg Iōannēs IV Doukas Laskaris
(Ιωάννης Δ’ Λάσκαρις)
18 Agustus 1258–
25 Desember 1261
Lahir pada tanggal 25 Desember 1250 sebagai putra tunggal Theodōros II, ia naik tahta setelah kematian ayahnya. Karena ia masih di bawah umur, perwalian dilakukan pertama-tama oleh Geōrgios Mouzalōnsampai ia tewas dibunuh, dan kemudian oleh Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos, yang hanya beberapa bulan dimahkotai sebagai kaisar senior. Setelah pemulihan Konstantinopel pada bulan Agustus 1261, Palaiologos menyingkirkan Iōannēs IV sepenuhnya, membutakan dan memenjarakannya. Iōannēs IV wafat pada sek. tahun 1305.

Dinasti Palaiologos (dipulihkan ke Konstantinopel, 1261–1453)

Gambar Nama Status Lahir Kaisar dari Kaisar sampai Wafat
MichaelVIIIPaleologusGoldHyperpyron.jpg Mikhaēl VIII PalaiologosΜιχαήλ Η’ Παλαιολόγος Buyut Alexios III, cucu keponakan Iōannēs III oleh pernikahan 1223 1 Januari 1259 sebagai rekan-kaisar, kaisar senior sejak 25 Desember 1261 11 Desember 1282 11 Desember 1282
Serres IM Prodromou Andronicos.jpg Andronikos II PalaiologosΑνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος Putra Mikhaēl VIII 25 Maret 1259 rekan-kaisar nominal pada bulan September, 1261, dimahkotai pada tahun 1272. Kaisar senior pada tanggal 11 Desember 1282 24 Mei 1328 13 Februari 1332
AndronikosIIandMichaelIXPalaeologusSilverBasilikon.jpg Mikhaēl IX PalaiologosΜιχαήλ Θ’ Παλαιολόγος Putra Andronikos II 17 April 1277 rekan-kaisar pada tahun 1281, dimahkotai pada tahun 1294/1295. 12 Oktober 1320 12 Oktober 1320
Андроник III Палеолог.jpg Andronikos III PalaiologosΑνδρόνικος Γ’ Παλαιολόγος Putra Mikhaēl IX 25 Maret 1297 rekan-kaisar pada tahun 1316, saingan kaisar sejak Juli 1321. Kaisar senior pada tanggal 24 Mei 1328. 15 Juni 1341 15 Juni 1341
John V Palaiologos.jpg Iōannēs V PalaiologosΙωάννης Ε’ Παλαιολόγος Putra Andronikos III 18 Juni 1332 Kaisar pada tanggal 15 Juni 1341 8 Februari 1347 16 Februari 1391
John VI Kantakouzenos.jpg Iōannēs VI KantakouzēnosΙωάννης ΣΤ’ Καντακουζηνός Kerabat maternal Palaeologus sek. 1292 saingan kaisar pada tanggal 26 Oktober 1341, kaisar senior pada tanggal 8 Februari 1347. 4 Desember 1354 15 Juni 1383
Matthaios Asanēs Kantakouzēnos Ματθαίος Καντακουζηνός Putra Iōannēs VI, saudara ipar Iōannēs V sek. 1325 rekan-kaisar pada tanggal 15 April 1353, saingan kaisar sejak 4 Desember 1354. Desember, 1357 antara 1383 dan 1391
John V Palaiologos.jpg Iōannēs V PalaeologusΙωάννης Ε’ Παλαιολόγος Putra Andronikos III, menantu Iōannēs VI 18 Juni 1332 rekan-kaisar tahun 1347, saingan kaisar tahun 1352. Kaisar senior tanggal 4 Desember 1354 12 Agustus 1376 16 Februari 1391
Andronikos IV Palaiologos.jpg Andronikos IV PalaiologosΑνδρόνικος Δ΄ Παλαιολόγος Putra Iōannēs V, cucu laki-laki Iōannēs VI 2 April 1348 rekan-kaisar sek. tahun 1352, Kaisar senior pada tanggal 12 Agustus 1376 1 Juli 1379 28 Juni 1385
John V Palaiologos.jpg Iōannēs V PalaiologosΙωάννης Ε’ Παλαιολόγος Putra Andronikos III, menantu Iōannēs VI 18 Juni 1332 Kaisar Senior pada tanggal 1 Juli 1379 14 April 1390 16 Februari 1391
Iōannēs VII PalaiologosΙωάννης Ζ’ Παλαιολόγος Putra Andronikos IV 1370 Rekan-kaisar sejak tahun 1376 s/d tahun 1379, kaisar senior sejak tanggal 14 April 1390. 17 September 1390 22 September 1408
John V Palaiologos.jpg Iōannēs V PalaiologosΙωάννης Ε’ Παλαιολόγος Putra Andronikos III, menantu Iōannēs VI 18 Juni 1332 Kaisar Senior pada tanggal 17 September 1390 16 Februari 1391 16 Februari 1391
Manuel II Paleologus.jpg Manouēl II PalaiologosΜανουήλ Β’ Παλαιολόγος Putra Iōannēs V, cucu laki-laki Iōannēs VI, saudara Andronikos IV 27 Juni 1350 Rekan-kaisar sejak tahun 1373, Kaisar Senior pada tanggal 16 Februari 1391 21 Juli 1425 21 Juli 1425
Andronikos V PalaiologosΑνδρόνικος Ε’ Παλαιολόγος Putra Iōannēs VII sek. 1400 rekan-kaisar sek. tahun 1403 sek. 1407 sek. 1407
Palaio.jpg Iōannēs VIII PalaiologosΙωάννης Η’ Putra Manouēl II 18 Desember 1392 Rekan-kaisar sek. tahun 1416, kaisar tunggal pada tanggal 21 Juli 1425 31 Oktober 1448 31 Oktober 1448
Constantine XI Palaiologos miniature.jpg Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ’ Παλαιολόγος Putra Manouēl II, saudara Iōannēs VIII 8 Februari 1405 6 Januari 1449 29 Mei 1453 29 Mei 1453

Dinasti Palaiologos

Gambar Nama Status Lahir Kaisar dari Kaisar Sampai Wafat
Demetrios Palaiologos Δημήτριος Παλαιολόγος Putra Manouēl II, saudara Iōannēs VIII dan Kōnstantinos XI sek. 1407 1453 1460 1470
Thomas Palaiologos.jpg Thomas Palaiologos Θωμάς Παλαιολόγος Putra Manouēl II, saudara Iōannēs VIII dan Kōnstantinos XI sek. 1409 1453 12 Mei 1465 12 Mei 1465
Andreas Palaiologos Ανδρέας Παλαιολόγος Putra Thomas sek. 1453 12 Mei 1465 1502 1502

Pada tahun 1453 Mehmed II berhasil merebut Konstantinopel, dan Kekaisaran Bizantium runtuh.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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